EMRStop.com

Random Quote

For instance, in the aqueous solution of the Zhadin experiment, we witnesss an ion current peak - that can be detected in the order of 10-100 nA - when we apply a suitable combination of DC-AC magnetic fields. But the AC field is very weak: in the order of 10nT! And the DC field is like the geomagnetic one: there is no transfer of energy able to induce an alteration in the system temperature. It is not only a non thermal effect; it is an athermal effect!


Livio Giuliani
National Institute for Prevention and Safety at Work (ISPESL), Rome, Italy

Too Little, Too Weak, Too Late

electromagnetic radiation legislators

Read EMR Stop's position on the 2011 WHO IARC announcement that mobile phone radiation is a "2B potential Carcinogen".

follow emrstop on twitter

Units Conversion
EMR Issues - EMF/EMR General Information

Many people are wanting conversions between microwave measurement units so that they can compare Volts per metre (V/m), with Watts per metre squared (W/m2). For modern digital telecommunications signals, this is not as easy, or as useful, as you would first think that it would be.

For continuous-wave transmissions, including VHF FM radio signals, the conversion is relatively easy.
These signals remain fairly constant in amplitude and the conversion from signal strength in volts/metre to power flux density (PFD) in watts per square metre can be done using the formula:

PFD = (V/m)2/377 watts per metre squared (W/m2)

e.g. 58.2 V/m (ICNIRP 1800 MHz) = (58.2*58.2)/377 = 9 W/m2

This conversion is not particularly relevant for exposure from mobile phones, base stations and DECT cordless phones and the results can be extremely misleading.

The problem occurs because PFD is ONLY relevant to heating and it averages the power over time (6 minutes for official RF PFD measurements). Any PFD has to be integrated over time and most hand-held instruments average over at least a few seconds. Some instruments have a "peak-detect" facility that can give the equivalent power as if the pulsing peak levels were continuous. Note this is not the same as a "max hold" facility. This is because the normal max hold function on a meter gives you the maximum RMS value measured over the time you have been using the instrument, whereas peak detect measures the level at the top of any pulses in the signal.

For example, the peak power from a TETRA base station is twice the average power.
The peak power of a DECT cordless phone base unit can be up to 100 times more than the average power!

We believe that the best unit of measurement for varying microwave signals at the non-thermal levels we are concerned with is volts per metre. Most instruments that display PFD units have actually measured the signal in terms of V/m and then internally calculated the equivalent (usually average) PFD value in W/m2 or similar.

Conversion between V/m and W/m2 for continuous (CW) signals

V/m     

µW/m2

To convert W/m2 to mW/cm2 divide by 10.
To convert W/m2 to mW/m2 multiply by 1,000.
To convert µW/m2 to W/m2 divide by 1,000,000 (1 million).

 

A big thank you to Powerwatch UK for the information above.

 

Magnetic Units Converter

Convert from gauss to tesla and vice versa using the easy conversion tool below.

  =       


1 Gauss = .0001 Tesla, or 1 Tesla = 10,000 Gauss

Other Conversion Formulae

__________________________________________________________________________________________

V/m = W/m2 / 377 Volts per meter = the square root of the product of Watts per square meter times 377

kV/m = V/m /1,000 Kilo-volts per meter = Volts per meter divided by 1,000

mW/cm2 = W/m2 / 10 Milli-Watts per square centimeter = Watts per square meter divided by 10

µW/m2 = W/m2 x 1,000,000 Micro-Watts per square meter = Watts per square meter times one million

µW/cm2 = W/m2 / .01 Micro-Watts per square centimeter = Watts per square meter divided by .01

nW/cm2 = W/m2 / .000,01 Nano-Watts per square centimeter = Watts per square meter divided by .000,01

pW/cm2 = W/m2 / .000,000,01 Pico-Watts per square centimeter = Watts per square meter divided by .000,000,01

A/m = W/m2 / 377 Amps per meter = the square root of the product of Watts per square meter divided by 377

mG = W/m2 / 23.9 Milli-Gauss = Watts per square meter divided by 23.9
µT = W/m2 / 239 Micro-Teslas = Watts per square meter divided by 239
nT = W/m2 / 239,000 Nano-Teslas = Watts per square meter divided by 239,000