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Electromagnetic fields are packets of energy that do not have any mass, and visible light is what we know best. X-rays are also electromagnetic fields, but they are more energetic than visible light. Our concern is for those electromagnetic fields that are less energetic than visible light, including those that are associated with electricity and those used for communications and in microwave ovens.  The fields associated with electricity are commonly called “extremely low frequency” fields (ELF), while those used in communication and microwave ovens are called “radiofrequency” (RF) fields.  Studies of people have shown that both ELF and RF exposures result in an increased risk of cancer, and that this occurs at intensities that are too low to cause tissue heating.  Unfortunately, all of our exposure standards are based on the false assumption that there are no hazardous effects at intensities that do not cause tissue heating. Based on the existing science, many public health experts believe it is possible we will face an epidemic of cancers in the future resulting from uncontrolled use of cell phones and increased population exposure to WiFi and other wireless devices.  Thus it is important that all of us, and especially children, restrict our use of cell phones, limit exposure to background levels of Wi-Fi, and that government and industry discover ways in which to allow use of wireless devices without such elevated risk of serious disease. We need to educate decision-makers that ‘business as usual’ is unacceptable. The importance of this public health issue can not be underestimated.

David Carpenter, MD

Professor, Environmental Health Sciences, and Director, Institute for Health and the Environment, School of Public Health, University of Albany, SUNY
Co-Editor, The BioInitiative Report

Too Little, Too Weak, Too Late

electromagnetic radiation legislators

Read EMR Stop's position on the 2011 WHO IARC announcement that mobile phone radiation is a "2B potential Carcinogen".

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Units Conversion
EMR Issues - EMF/EMR General Information

Many people are wanting conversions between microwave measurement units so that they can compare Volts per metre (V/m), with Watts per metre squared (W/m2). For modern digital telecommunications signals, this is not as easy, or as useful, as you would first think that it would be.

For continuous-wave transmissions, including VHF FM radio signals, the conversion is relatively easy.
These signals remain fairly constant in amplitude and the conversion from signal strength in volts/metre to power flux density (PFD) in watts per square metre can be done using the formula:

PFD = (V/m)2/377 watts per metre squared (W/m2)

e.g. 58.2 V/m (ICNIRP 1800 MHz) = (58.2*58.2)/377 = 9 W/m2

This conversion is not particularly relevant for exposure from mobile phones, base stations and DECT cordless phones and the results can be extremely misleading.

The problem occurs because PFD is ONLY relevant to heating and it averages the power over time (6 minutes for official RF PFD measurements). Any PFD has to be integrated over time and most hand-held instruments average over at least a few seconds. Some instruments have a "peak-detect" facility that can give the equivalent power as if the pulsing peak levels were continuous. Note this is not the same as a "max hold" facility. This is because the normal max hold function on a meter gives you the maximum RMS value measured over the time you have been using the instrument, whereas peak detect measures the level at the top of any pulses in the signal.

For example, the peak power from a TETRA base station is twice the average power.
The peak power of a DECT cordless phone base unit can be up to 100 times more than the average power!

We believe that the best unit of measurement for varying microwave signals at the non-thermal levels we are concerned with is volts per metre. Most instruments that display PFD units have actually measured the signal in terms of V/m and then internally calculated the equivalent (usually average) PFD value in W/m2 or similar.

Conversion between V/m and W/m2 for continuous (CW) signals

V/m     

µW/m2

To convert W/m2 to mW/cm2 divide by 10.
To convert W/m2 to mW/m2 multiply by 1,000.
To convert µW/m2 to W/m2 divide by 1,000,000 (1 million).

 

A big thank you to Powerwatch UK for the information above.

 

Magnetic Units Converter

Convert from gauss to tesla and vice versa using the easy conversion tool below.

  =       


1 Gauss = .0001 Tesla, or 1 Tesla = 10,000 Gauss

Other Conversion Formulae

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V/m = W/m2 / 377 Volts per meter = the square root of the product of Watts per square meter times 377

kV/m = V/m /1,000 Kilo-volts per meter = Volts per meter divided by 1,000

mW/cm2 = W/m2 / 10 Milli-Watts per square centimeter = Watts per square meter divided by 10

µW/m2 = W/m2 x 1,000,000 Micro-Watts per square meter = Watts per square meter times one million

µW/cm2 = W/m2 / .01 Micro-Watts per square centimeter = Watts per square meter divided by .01

nW/cm2 = W/m2 / .000,01 Nano-Watts per square centimeter = Watts per square meter divided by .000,01

pW/cm2 = W/m2 / .000,000,01 Pico-Watts per square centimeter = Watts per square meter divided by .000,000,01

A/m = W/m2 / 377 Amps per meter = the square root of the product of Watts per square meter divided by 377

mG = W/m2 / 23.9 Milli-Gauss = Watts per square meter divided by 23.9
µT = W/m2 / 239 Micro-Teslas = Watts per square meter divided by 239
nT = W/m2 / 239,000 Nano-Teslas = Watts per square meter divided by 239,000