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"Allan Frey would help pioneer the science that suggested otherwise. At the vanguard of a new field of study that came to be known as bioelectromagnetics, he found what appeared to be grave nonthermal effects from microwave frequencies—the part of the spectrum that belongs not just to radar signals and microwave ovens but also, in the past fifteen years, to cell phones. (The only honest way to think of our cell phones is that they are tiny, low-power microwave ovens, without walls, that we hold against the sides of our heads.) Frey tested microwave radiation on frogs and other lab animals, targeting the eyes, the heart, and the brain, and in each case he found troubling results. In one study, he triggered heart arrhythmias. Then, using the right modulations of the frequency, he even stopped frog hearts with microwaves—stopped the hearts dead.

Frey observed two factors in how microwaves at low power could affect living systems. First, there was the carrier wave: a frequency of 1,900 megahertz, for example, the same frequency of many cell phones today. Then there was the data placed on the carrier wave—in the case of cell phones, this would be the sounds, words, and pictures that travel along it. When you add information to a carrier wave, it embeds a second signal—a second frequency—within the carrier wave. This is known as modulation. A carrier wave can support any number of modulations, even those that match the ­extra-low frequencies at which the brain operates (between eight and twenty hertz). It was modulation, Frey discovered, that induced the widest variety of biological effects. But how this happened, on a neuronal level, he didn't yet understand.

In a study published in 1975 in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Frey reported that microwaves pulsed at certain modulations could induce "leakage" in the barrier between the circulatory system and the brain. Breaching the blood-brain barrier is a serious matter: It means the brain's environment, which needs to be extremely stable for nerve cells to function properly, can be perturbed in all kinds of dangerous ways. Frey's method was rather simple: He injected a fluorescent dye into the circulatory system of white rats, then swept the ­microwave frequencies across their bodies. In a matter of minutes, the dye had leached into the confines of the rats' brains.

Frey says his work on radar microwaves and the blood-brain barrier soon came under assault from the government. Scientists hired and funded by the Pentagon claimed they'd failed to replicate his findings, yet they also refused to share the data or methodology behind their research ("a most unusual action in science," Frey wrote at the time). For more than fifteen years, Frey had received almost unrestricted funding from the Office of Naval Research. Now he was told to conceal his blood-brain-barrier work or his contract would be canceled."

Excerpt from GQ Magazine's excellent "Warning: Your Cell Phone May Be Hazardous to Your Health"

Too Little, Too Weak, Too Late

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Units Conversion
EMR Issues - EMF/EMR General Information

Many people are wanting conversions between microwave measurement units so that they can compare Volts per metre (V/m), with Watts per metre squared (W/m2). For modern digital telecommunications signals, this is not as easy, or as useful, as you would first think that it would be.

For continuous-wave transmissions, including VHF FM radio signals, the conversion is relatively easy.
These signals remain fairly constant in amplitude and the conversion from signal strength in volts/metre to power flux density (PFD) in watts per square metre can be done using the formula:

PFD = (V/m)2/377 watts per metre squared (W/m2)

e.g. 58.2 V/m (ICNIRP 1800 MHz) = (58.2*58.2)/377 = 9 W/m2

This conversion is not particularly relevant for exposure from mobile phones, base stations and DECT cordless phones and the results can be extremely misleading.

The problem occurs because PFD is ONLY relevant to heating and it averages the power over time (6 minutes for official RF PFD measurements). Any PFD has to be integrated over time and most hand-held instruments average over at least a few seconds. Some instruments have a "peak-detect" facility that can give the equivalent power as if the pulsing peak levels were continuous. Note this is not the same as a "max hold" facility. This is because the normal max hold function on a meter gives you the maximum RMS value measured over the time you have been using the instrument, whereas peak detect measures the level at the top of any pulses in the signal.

For example, the peak power from a TETRA base station is twice the average power.
The peak power of a DECT cordless phone base unit can be up to 100 times more than the average power!

We believe that the best unit of measurement for varying microwave signals at the non-thermal levels we are concerned with is volts per metre. Most instruments that display PFD units have actually measured the signal in terms of V/m and then internally calculated the equivalent (usually average) PFD value in W/m2 or similar.

Conversion between V/m and W/m2 for continuous (CW) signals



To convert W/m2 to mW/cm2 divide by 10.
To convert W/m2 to mW/m2 multiply by 1,000.
To convert µW/m2 to W/m2 divide by 1,000,000 (1 million).


A big thank you to Powerwatch UK for the information above.


Magnetic Units Converter

Convert from gauss to tesla and vice versa using the easy conversion tool below.


1 Gauss = .0001 Tesla, or 1 Tesla = 10,000 Gauss

Other Conversion Formulae


V/m = W/m2 / 377 Volts per meter = the square root of the product of Watts per square meter times 377

kV/m = V/m /1,000 Kilo-volts per meter = Volts per meter divided by 1,000

mW/cm2 = W/m2 / 10 Milli-Watts per square centimeter = Watts per square meter divided by 10

µW/m2 = W/m2 x 1,000,000 Micro-Watts per square meter = Watts per square meter times one million

µW/cm2 = W/m2 / .01 Micro-Watts per square centimeter = Watts per square meter divided by .01

nW/cm2 = W/m2 / .000,01 Nano-Watts per square centimeter = Watts per square meter divided by .000,01

pW/cm2 = W/m2 / .000,000,01 Pico-Watts per square centimeter = Watts per square meter divided by .000,000,01

A/m = W/m2 / 377 Amps per meter = the square root of the product of Watts per square meter divided by 377

mG = W/m2 / 23.9 Milli-Gauss = Watts per square meter divided by 23.9
µT = W/m2 / 239 Micro-Teslas = Watts per square meter divided by 239
nT = W/m2 / 239,000 Nano-Teslas = Watts per square meter divided by 239,000